Vapor-Phase Fabrication of a Maleimide-Functionalized Poly-p-xylylene with a Three-Dimensional Structure

Shu-Man Hu, Chin-Yun Lee, Yu-Ming Chang, Jia-Qi Xiao, Tatsuya Kusanagi, Ting-Ying Wu, ...


A vapor-phase process, involving the sublimation of an ice substrate/template and the vapor deposition of a maleimide-functionalized poly-p-xylylene, has been reported to synthesize an advanced porous material, with readily clickable chemical interface properties, to perform a Michael-type addition of a maleimide functionality for conjugation with a thiol group. In contrast to the conventional chemical vapor deposition of poly-p-xylylenes on a solid surface that forms thin film coatings, the process reported herein additionally results in deposition on a dynamic and sublimating ice surface (template), rendering the construction of a three-dimensional, porous, maleimide-functionalized poly-p-xylylene. The process seamlessly exploits the refined chemical vapor deposition polymerization from maleimide-substituted [2,2]paracyclophane and ensures the preservation and transformation of the maleimide functionality to the final porous poly-p-xylylene products. The functionalization and production of a porous maleimide-functionalized poly-p-xylylene were completed in a single step, thus avoiding complicated steps or post-functionalization procedures that are commonly seen in conventional approaches to produce functional materials. More importantly, the equipped maleimide functionality provides a rapid and efficient route for click conjugation toward thiol-terminated molecules, and the reaction can be performed under mild conditions at room temperature in a water solution without the need for a catalyst, an initiator, or other energy sources. The introduced vapor-based process enables a straightforward synthesis approach to produce not only a pore-forming structure of a three-dimensional material, but also an in situ-derived maleimide functional group, to conduct a covalent click reaction with thiol-terminal molecules, which are abundant in biological environments. These advanced materials are expected to have a wide variety of new applications.

KEYWORDS: vapor sublimation and deposition, functional poly-p-xylylene, maleimude, porous material, orthogonal conjugation