Vapor-Phase Fabrication of Cell-Accommodated Scaffolds with Multicomponent Functionalization for Neuronal Applications

Ting-Ying Wu, Chih-Yu Wu, Jane Christy, Yu-Chih Chiang, Zhen-Yu Guan, Jiashing Yu, Hsi...


Multifunctional scaffolds are needed for neurogenetic tissue engineering. The rationale of the proposed advanced scaffold features a friendly vapor-phased fabrication process involving no solvents, initiators, or harmful chemical agents. The state-of-the-art fabrication mechanism is exploited in this study to fabricate a neuron-guiding porous scaffold based on controlling the thermodynamic properties and mass-transport phenomenon of the molecules that involve two simultaneous processes of water molecule sublimation and poly-p-xylylene deposition. More importantly, variations in the functional molecules are arranged in terms of the composition and spatial location within the scaffold construct to provide multiple functions, including excellent biocompatibility by poly-p-xylylene, electrical conductivity by poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS), and multicomponent growth factors by platelet-rich plasma (PRP). In addition, pheochromocytoma 12 cell line (PC-12) cells are preloaded to ensure homogeneous distribution. High cell viability is also observed with spherical aggregates of PC-12 cells, verifying enhanced cell–cell interactions and cell–matrix interactions and finally enhancing cellular responses, while increased efficiency of neurogenetic differentiation with upregulated Nestin and Tuj-1 gene expression is confirmed, showing enhancement of neuron-like cells differentiation in fabricated scaffold constructs. The advanced scaffold represents a prospective synthetic tissue engineering product with sophisticated engineering guidance of molecular composition and distribution and control of cellular activities and differentiation.

KEYWORDS: deposition,  multifunctional  scaffolds,  neuron-guiding  functionalization,  sublimation, vapor-phase fabrication